Validating Business Rules in MVVM

January 22, 2012

I’ve always thought that raw data validation should occur in the data Model, while Business Rule validation should occur in the ViewModel.

For example, verifying that a UserName is no longer than X length long should occur in the data model, while verifying that the UserName is unique would occur in the ViewModel. The reason for this is that the User Model is simply a raw data object. It doesn’t contain any advanced functionality like database connectivity, or knowing about other User objects. It’s a selfish little thing which only cares about it’s own data.

Since I use IDataErrorInfo for my validation and like to expose the entire Model to the View from my ViewModel, this presents a problem. Using the above example, I could bind a TextBox to SelectedUser.UserName, and it would automatically show an ErrorTemplate if the string was too long, however it wouldn’t show an error template if the UserName already exists.

After some thought, I decided to add a Validation Delegate to my Models to solve this problem. This is a delegate which ViewModels can use to add Business Logic Validation to its Models.

In the above example, the UsersViewModel might look like this:

public class UsersViewModel
    // Keeping these generic to reduce code here, but they
    // should be full properties with PropertyChange notification
    public ObservableCollection<UserModel> UserCollection { get; set; }
    public UserModel SelectedUser { get; set; }

    public UsersViewModel()
        UserCollection = DAL.GetAllUsers();

        // Add the validation delegate to the UserModels
        foreach(var user in UserCollection)

    // User Validation Delegate to verify UserName is unique
    private string ValidateUser(object sender, string propertyName)
        if (propertyName == "UserName")
            var user = (UserModel)sender;
            var existingCount = UserCollection.Count(p => 
                p.UserName == user.UserName && p.Id != user.Id);

            if (existingCount > 0)
                return "This username has already been taken";
        return null;

The actual implementation of my IDataErrorInfo on my Model class would look like the code below. It’s generic, so I usually put it into some kind of base class for my Models.

    #region IDataErrorInfo & Validation Members
    #region Validation Delegate
    public delegate string ValidationDelegate(
        object sender, string propertyName);
    private List<ValidationDelegate> _validationDelegates = new List<ValidationDelegate>();
    public void AddValidationDelegate(ValidationDelegate func)

    public void RemoveValidationDelegate(ValidationDelegate func)
        if (_validationDelegates.Contains(func))
    #endregion // Validation Delegate
    #region IDataErrorInfo for binding errors
    string IDataErrorInfo.Error { get { return null; } }
    string IDataErrorInfo.this[string propertyName]
        get { return this.GetValidationError(propertyName); }
    public string GetValidationError(string propertyName)
        string s = null;

        foreach (var func in _validationDelegates)
            s = func(this, propertyName);
            if (s != null)
                return s;
        return s;
    #endregion // IDataErrorInfo for binding errors
    #endregion // IDataErrorInfo & Validation Members

The idea is that your Models should only contain raw data, therefore they should only validate raw data. This can include validating things like maximum lengths, required fields, and allowed characters. Business Logic, which includes business rules, should be validated in the ViewModel, and by exposing a Validation Delegate that they can subscribe to, this can happen.